The continuing rise of computational modelling applications, in particular simulation approaches, resembles the ‘hype’ cycles our discipline experienced in the past. The introduction of statistics, data management or GIS all started with inflated expectations and an explosion in applications, followed by a ‘correction’ phase seeing the early optimism dwindling and a heavy critique towards exaggerated claims and examples of misapplication. The next phase, ‘maturity’, is reached when the use of a particular technique is not questioned any more (although particular applications of it may still be) as it becomes part of the standard research toolkit. The verdict is still out whether the use of simulation techniques in archaeology is reaching the peak of the ‘optimism’ phase or is perhaps still in the midst of the ‘correction’ phase. However, lessons learned from other, now commonly used, computational methods or coming from other disciplines could accelerate the process of establishing simulation in the mainstream of archaeological practice. The Special Interest Group in Complex System Simulation would like to open the discussion to a wide audience of archaeologists and therefore invites all CAA2017 participants to take an active part in the roundtable. During the meeting we will consider the current place of simulation in archaeological practice, the main challenges facing modellers and the road map for the future.